What is Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

Software Development Life Cycle
Software Development Life Cycle

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a well-defined, structured sequence of stages in software engineering to develop the desired product. SDLC provides a series of steps to be followed to design and develop a software product efficiently.

SDLC creates a structure for the development teams to be able to design, create and deliver high-quality software by defining various tasks that need to happen The life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development process.

The intent of an SDLC process it to help produce a product that is cost-efficient, effective, and of high quality.

SDLC framework includes the following steps:

Requirement gathering and analysis
Design
Implementation or coding
Testing
Deployment
Maintenance

1. Requirement gathering and analysis:-

Software Development Life Cycle begins with Requirement Analysis phase, this phase is the main focus of the project managers and stakeholders. : Business requirements are gathered in this phase. Meetings with managers, stakeholders, and users are held in order to determine the requirements. The aim of the requirement analysis phase is to capture the detail of each requirement and to make sure everyone understands the scope of the work and how each requirement is going to be fulfilled.
Finally, a Requirement Specification document is created which serves the purpose of guideline for the next phase of the model. The testing team follows the Software Testing Life Cycle and starts the Test Planning phase after the requirements analysis is completed.

2. Design:-

In this phase, the system and software design are prepared from the requirement specifications. During the design phase, developers and technical architects start the high-level design of the software and system to be able to deliver each requirement.
The selected architectural design defines all the components that need to be developed, communications with third-party services, user flows, and database communications as well as front-end representations and behavior of each component. The system design specifications serve as input for the next phase of the model.

3. Implementation or coding:-

This step is also known as programming phase. On receiving system design documents, the work is divided into modules/units and actual coding is started. Since in this phase the code is produced so it is the main focus for the developer. This is the longest phase of the software development lifecycle.
Database admins create the necessary data in the database, front-end developers create the necessary interfaces and GUI to interact with the back-end all based on guidelines and procedures defined by the company.

4. Testing:-

Testing is the last phase of the Software Development Life Cycle before the software is delivered to customers. During testing, experienced testers start to test the system against the requirements. During this phase, all types of functional testing like unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing are done as well as non-functional testing are also done. The testers aim to find defects within the system as well as verifying whether the application behaves as expected and according to what was documented in the requirements analysis phase.
Once a defect is found, testers inform the developers about the details of the issue and if it is a valid defect, developers will fix and create a new version of the software which needs to be verified again.
This cycle is repeated until all requirements have been tested and all the defects have been fixed and the software is ready to be shipped.

5. Deployment:-

Once the software has been fully tested and no high priority issues remain in the software, the product is deployed to the customers.

6. Maintenance:-

Once the software is released to production, there is usually a maintenance team that looks after any post-production issues.
When the customers start using the developed system then the actual problems come up and needs to be solved from time to time.If an issue is encountered in the production the development team is informed and depending on how severe the issue is, it might either require a hot-fix which is created and shipped in a short period of time or if not very severe, it can wait until the next version of the software.

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