Q1. What is Top-Down Approach?
Ans-Testing takes place from top to bottom. High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules and finally integrating the low-level modules to a high level to ensure the system is working as intended.
Q2. What is Bottom-Up Approach?
Ans-It is a reciprocate of the Top-Down Approach. Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules and finally integrating the high-level modules to a low level to ensure the system is working as intended.
Q3. What is Retesting?
Ans-Retesting is basically done to ensure that the defects which were found and posted in the earlier build were fixed or not in the current build.
Q4. What is Regression Testing?
Ans-Regression Testing is the repeated testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software components.
Q5. What is a Defect?
Ans-The variation between the actual results and expected results is known as a defect. If a developer finds an issue and corrects it by himself in the development phase then it’s called a defect.
Q6. What is a Bug?
Ans-If testers find any mismatch in the application/system in testing phase then they call it as Bug.
Q7. What is an Error?
Ans-We can’t compile or run a program due to a coding mistake in a program. If a developer unable to successfully compile or run a program then they call it as an error.
Q8. What is a Failure?
Ans-Once the product is deployed and customers find any issues then they call the product as a failure product. After release, if an end user finds an issue then that particular issue is called as a failure.
Q9. Write an example of High Severity Low Priority?
Ans-If there is an application if that application crashes after multiple uses of any functionality (eg–save Button use 200 times then that application will crash)
Means High Severity because the application crashed but Low Priority because no need to debug right now you can debug it after some days.
Q10. Write an example of Low Severity and High Priority.
Ans-An example would be- you find a spelling mistake in the name of the website which you are testing.Say, the name is supposed to be Google and its spelled there as ‘Gaogle’. Though it doesn’t affect the basic functionality of the software, it needs to be corrected before the release. Hence, the priority is high.
Q11. Write an example for High Severity and High Priority.
Ans-A bug which is a show stopper. i.e., a bug due to which we are unable to proceed our testing.An example would be a runtime error during the normal operation of the software, which would cause the application to quit abruptly.
Q12. What is exact difference between Debugging & Testing?
Ans-Testing is nothing but finding an error/problem and its done by testers whereas debugging is nothing but finding the root cause of the error/problem and that is taken care by developers.
Debugging- is removing the bug and is done by the developer.
Testing – is identifying the bug and is done by the tester.
Q13. When should the testing be ended?
Ans-Testing is a never-ending process, because of some factors testing May terminates.
The factors may be most of the tests are executed, project deadline, test budget depletion, bug rate falls down below the criteria.
Q14. How would you ensure 100% coverage of testing?
Ans-We cannot perform 100% testing on any application. but the criteria to ensure test completion on a project are:
1. All the test cases are executed with the certain percentage of the pass.
2. Bug falls below a certain level
3. Test budget depleted
4. Deadlines reached (project or test)
5. When all the functionalities are covered in a test cases
6. All critical & high bugs must have a status of CLOSED
Q15. What is Bug Leakage?
Ans-A bug which is actually missed by the testing team while testing and the build was released to the Production. If now that bug (which was missed by the testing team) was found by the end user or customer then we call it as Bug Leakage.
Q16. What is HotFix?
Ans-A bug which needs to handle as a high priority bug and fix it immediately.
Q17. What is migration testing?
Ans-Changing of an application or changing of their versions and conducting testing is migration testing. Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.
Q18. What is traceability matrix?
Ans-The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. This document is known as traceability matrix.
Q19. What are different test levels?
Ans-There are four test levels
1. Unit/component/program/module testing
2. Integration testing
3. System testing
4. Acceptance testing
Q20. In manual testing what are stubs and drivers?
Ans-Both stubs and drivers are part of incremental testing. In incremental testing, there are two approaches namely bottom-up and top-down approach. Drivers are used in the bottom up testing and stub is used for top-down approach. In order to test the main module, a stub is used, which is a dummy code or program.